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Plethodontidae - Lungless Salamanders


The largest family of extant salamanders with 28 genera and 466 species (as of 2017). All species lack lungs, conducting respiration through their skin, and the mouth lining; they have elongated body, and nasolabial grooves. Most species have direct development. The lungless salamanders have adapted to stream, terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, and cave habitats. Several species are entirely aquatic and neotenic, i.e., do not undergo metamorphosis.

With the exception of six Mediterranean species, the Plethodontidae are confined to the Americas, ranging from southern Ontario to Brazil; they are most diverse in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, and also Mexico and Central America.



    Terrestrial Splayfoot Salamander (Chiropterotriton terrestris)
    Seepage Salamander (Desmognathus aeneus)
    Dwarf Black-bellied (SalamanderDesmognathus folkertsi)
    Seal Salamander (Desmognathus monticola)
    Ocoee Salamander (Desmognathus ocoee)
    Northern Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata)
    Southern Two-lined Salamander (Eurycea cirrigera)
    Shields Ranch Salamander (Eurycea troglodytes complex)
    Four-toed Salamander (Hemidactylium scutatum)
    Eastern Redback Salamander (Plethodon cinereus)
    Bell's False Brook Salamander (Pseudoeurycea bellii)
    Red-legged False Brook Salamander (Pseudoeurycea cephalica)

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